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Friday, January 25, 2013

Police action is not end Greek Workers Strike

Athens’ metro workers, on strike for a ninth straight day to protest planned salary cuts, said on Friday that they will continue to defy the Greek government and remain on strike despite the threat of arrest.
Hours earlier, riot police stormed the main depot of the Athens Metro, which had been occupied by workers, in an attempt to end the strike, which has spread to include all public transport in the Greek capital.
Police implemented an emergency order issued by the government to end the strike. The order allows the government to arrest or fire workers who refuse to return to work.
Police broke through the gates of the depot and cleared the workers. No violence was reported.
Government officials have distributed notifications to all metro workers demanding they return to work. Ignoring the order can lead to arrest and jail terms of between three months to five years.
Speaking on Greek state television NET, government spokesman Simos Kedikoglou said he expected the metro to be operational at the weekend.
“It is the responsibility of the government to uphold the law and for the general public to not suffer such an inconvenience,” he said.
Radio reports said approximately 50 metro workers had returned to work on Friday, far less than the number needed to put the transport system back into operation.
The strike has caused massive traffic jams throughout Athens and hampered access to airports.
In a show of solidarity, workers with the city’s electric railway, trams, buses and trolley service on Thursday declared a strike.
Despite the inconvenience, many commuters expressed their understanding for the strikers, saying they too had suffered pay cuts to their own incomes.
“It took me more than two hours to get to work this morning but, despite the inconvenience, I understand what they are going through because I have had my own salary cut by more than 20 per cent,” said Antonia Rapioni, a public servant.
Metro workers said they were protesting a unified pay structure the government is planning for civil servants, which would result in the abolition of their collective labour agreement.
The government aims to reduce transport workers salaries from 97.7 million euros (131 million dollars) in 2012 to 74.6 million euros this year.
Average gross wages without overtime on the metro will fall from about 2,500 euros to 2,038 euros.
The government passed a new round of austerity measures in December affecting a variety of sectors to ensure it continues receiving international bailout funds. 
DPA

Growing violence threatens political stability in Greece-Guardian

 

Attacks targeting politicians, journalists, banks and now a shopping mall stoke fears of growing extremism in the space of just a couple of weeks Greece’s largest shopping mall has been targeted in a bomb attack, gunmen have fired on the headquarters of the ruling New Democracy party, and gas canisters have been set off outside an array of political party offices, banks and the homes of journalists.
Three days after the attack on the shopping centre, which sent counter-terrorist officials on a painstaking hunt that has, as yet, borne little fruit. Fears are mounting that Greece’s fragile political stability could be shattered by extremists determined to exploit fury over unpopular austerity.
“The government is very, very concerned,” said a senior aide to one of the coalition’s tripartite leaders. “Political stability is essential to getting through the year.” In a nation that thought the spectre of terrorism had been laid to rest — with the dissolution, a decade ago, of the notorious November 17 group — the appearance of gangs prepared to take unprecedented risks has put authorities on edge.
After the office of the conservative prime minister, Antonis Samaras, was targeted in the attack on New Democracy’s central offices, urban guerrillas upped the ante on Sunday, placing a bomb in Athens’ biggest commercial centre, a massive shopping mall popular with families.
Two security guards were lightly injured in the blast after warning calls to two local media outlets, barely 50 minutes earlier, triggered a panic-stricken evacuation of nearly 300 people from the building. Many were children about to see movies. Initially the government blamed the violence on forces of the anti-austerity left, saying militants were taking revenge following a raid on a squat in the capital that had led to the arrest of scores of anarchists. Hundreds of petrol bombs, often used against riot police in demonstrations, were also confiscated.
In a bid to limit the influence of far-right extremists gathered around the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party, the conservative-dominated coalition has given added emphasis to law and order since assuming power in June.
“The police, by cracking down on their traditional anti-authority adversaries, are attempting to reclaim the law and order mantle for the current government,” says former U.S. diplomat Brady Kiesling, who has been studying Greek far left-anarchist violence for a forthcoming book. “The anarchists [in turn] are determined to humiliate them with symbolic attacks.”
But experts say the attack on the mall is also a dangerous indicator of the determination to escalate the violence. “What is more puzzling and more worrisome is what happened at the mall,” said Dr. Thanos Dokos, a defence expert who heads Eliamep, Greece’s pre-eminent think-tank.
“Explosive devices can go off accidentally, at any given time. Innocents, people who are not your normal targets, could have been killed. Clearly when you do such a thing you have made a decision to escalate [violence],” he said.
“In normal times I’d say we could have easily survived this knowing that such groups would barely have made an impact,” added Dr. Dokos. “Now I am worried about the negative publicity it could have on the country and potential investors, especially in the run-up to the tourist season, if they start targeting foreigners, and decide to hurt people.” This week, the U.S. state department issued a travel advisory warning U.S. citizens to be on the alert.
The violence has poisoned a political atmosphere already fraught with tension. The main opposition radical left Syriza party on Wednesday accused the government of attempting to sow the seeds of a “civil war” by associating the left exclusively with the attacks.
The climate reached boiling point when government spokesman Simos Kedikoglou accused a Syriza MP of being “terrorist friendly” after the leftwing politician denounced the everyday violence visited on Greeks by austerity measures the country has been forced to apply in return for rescue funds from the European Union and International Monetary Fund.
The MP, Vangelis Diamantopoulos, told supporters that exasperated Greeks have been given an excruciating choice between “either committing suicide or picking up a gun. What we say is: join us and turn this rage into a creative movement. That’s the clear message form Syriza.”
Security experts say they are under no doubt that the country’s economic crisis — and with it the collapse of mainstream parties that have dominated the political scene since the end of military rule in 1974 — have provided fertile ground for extremists groups to flourish.
“The recruitment pool has definitely got bigger,” said Mary Bossi who specialises in international terrorism at the University of Piraeus. “The empty space that opened up when political parties stopped being persuasive is filling up with extremists,” she said, adding that while the groups were “extremely diversified” they included middle class youths from privileged backgrounds. “We will see more violence in the future and attacks that may well be much more lethal.”

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Wealth does not lead to world-class institutions- Pushkar

There is little to disagree with many of the observations made by Ajay Gudavarthy and Nissim Mannathukkaren in their article “Comparing Harvard apples with JNU oranges” (The Hindu, Op-Ed, December 27, 2012) that: world rankings of universities do not give us an accurate picture of higher education in India and elsewhere, an overwhelming majority of top-200 universities are in rich countries and that the solution does not lie in emulating Western models.
They are right in asserting that there are different ways to evaluate higher education institutions. They mention “intangible features” such as access to education and give the example of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) as an institution which has served this cause for students from backward regions. Caste-based reservations in our institutions have served a similar purpose. At the same time, they concede that representation has come about at the cost of quality.
However, they evade or downplay several troubling issues and take up somewhat frivolous ones. Let me begin with their complaints about the problems and unfairness of the U.S. higher education system. They lament the commercialisation of education and growing student indebtedness in the U.S. First, it is not our problem. Second, India has done very well in commercialising higher education without emulating the U.S. model. They claim that American students are not trained to become “critical thinkers” but “foot soldiers of the establishment.” Agreed. Now how about asking this: what are we training our students to become?
Issue of context
Their biggest omission is context. They mention “different material realities” and “different starting points” of different countries but do not consider the same for India.
It is certainly true that 21st century India is still a poor country whether we use the “Third World” label or some other. At the same time, India, like China, is not just another poor country. It is certainly not Somalia (not my example) even though in parts of the country, people live in worse than Somalia-like conditions. The country has witnessed high rates of economic growth for over three decades so that it now counts among the largest economies in the world. At least some of that growth has occurred due to the country’s ability to tap into the global knowledge economy. The country and its peoples have also become more connected to the outside world — whether through trade, travel, technology or other means — over the past two-three decades. India has the world’s largest pool of college-age young women and men, and more women are taking to higher education. The country loses immense amounts of foreign exchange as thousands of affluent and meritorious students head abroad each year and far too few of the meritorious ones return.
It makes little sense to discuss higher education in India within the old frameworks of “rich,” “poor” or “Third World” countries. China and India belong to a different category of nations not just because they are growing economies but because they are large and populous. They are rich and poor, developed and underdeveloped, modern and traditional and everything else in between in different ways. They are countries that have arrived as global players or will do so in the coming future. Clearly, they are quite different from other low- and middle-income countries.
Given this context, the higher education sector has immense relevance and issues of quality and comparison of India’s institutions with those in rich countries is more than a matter of “time pass.” Further, substantial improvements in the quality of higher education are necessary for India’s economic growth and further development in ways that are both interdependent and less dependent on rich countries. It is only with a solid base of higher education that India will be able to design and develop more of its own technologies and prioritise invention and innovation to move forward.
Then and now
India’s higher education needs to aim much higher than a typical poor country. If global comparisons are not fair, other measures of quality — independent of government-created evaluation bodies or the print media — need to be devised. If it is not fair to compare India’s universities with those in rich countries, how about comparing them with what they were like two or three decades ago? Have the same universities become better over time?
Other than providing access to higher education, have there been improvements in their quality? If the majority of engineering colleges or management schools are as bad as employers say they are, why not rank them in comparison to our own leading institutions, whether JNU or others?
If one takes their reasoning — that vast disparities in wealth between the West and the rest explains why third-rate institutions are found in poor countries — to its logical conclusion, India must wait to get rich before dreaming to build world-ranked institutions. This reasoning flies against the commonsense view that a larger number of world-class institutions, whether ranked globally or not, can contribute enormously to India’s economic growth and dynamism in the coming decades. Instead, Gudavarthy and Mannathukkaren apply a version of the age-old modernisation theory — which posited a positive link between wealth and democracy — to higher education: that wealth leads to the creation of world-ranked institutions. Wealth has not brought democracy or world-class universities to oil-rich Middle Eastern countries. Arguably, precisely because these countries are not democratic, it is unlikely that their universities will ever, with or without the help of NYU or American University, reach the heights of western universities.
(Pushkar has a PhD in political science from McGill University. He previously taught at the University of Goa, Concordia University, McGill University and the University of Ottawa.)